• Ana Maria Mihaela RUGESCU University Politehnica of Bucharest
Keywords: Symmetry, aesthetic engineering, measurement, beauty, fractals


Our study is a theoretical approach to David Birkhoff’s theory on aesthetical measure and other theories of measure, as a potential path to improve aesthetic engineering theory. Golden ratio, fractal dimension, a few principles of design, self-organizing maps, evolutionary systems and the concept of complexity measures are the steps we considered. Our conclusion is that an objective measure of the aesthetic concept is far from being put to life.

Author Biography

Ana Maria Mihaela RUGESCU, University Politehnica of Bucharest

University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Engineering Graphics and Industrial Design


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How to Cite
RUGESCU, A. M. M. (2019). GEOMETRICAL STRUCTURES AND SYMMETRY LANGUAGE IN GEORGE DAVID BIRKHOFF’S STUDIES. Journal of Industrial Design and Engineering Graphics, 14(1), 257-262. Retrieved from